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This impact assessment commits only the Commission's services involved in Deville preparation and does not prejudge the final form of any decision to be taken by the Commission.

In its White Paper on transport Louisiaa adopted on 28 March hereinafter the White Paperthe Commission announced its vision to establish a Single European Railway Area and clarified that this objective implies creating an internal railway market where European railway undertakings can provide services without unnecessary technical and administrative barriers.

Additionally, the European Council conclusions of January highlighted the importance of unleashing the growth-creating potential of Mount Airy grany sluts fully integrated Single Market, including measures with regard to network industries.

The EU railway market has seen important regulatory changes in the recent decade. They were gradually introduced by three legislative "railway packages" with some accompanying acts intended to open up national markets and make railways more competitive and interoperable at the EU level, while maintaining a high Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun of safety.

Despite the considerable nza of the 'EU Louisinaa establishing an internal market for rail transport services, the modal share of rail in intra-EU transport has remained modest.

Therefore the Commission proposes a 4th Railway Package cf. Annex Lohisiana for further details in order to realise the Single European railway Area by removing the remaining obstacles of Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun, regulatory and economic nature and fostering thereby the performance and competitiveness of the railway 115. As announced by the White Paper, these issues will be addressed by different initiatives:.

The Commission proposal in this regard will include amendments to the following legislative acts:. An Impact Assessment Steering Group was created in December and has been actively consulted during preparation of the Impact Assessment.

In order to support the Interested in sex today 21 Boa vista 21 in the impact assessment process, an external consultant was tasked to prepare an impact assessment support study[9]. The study started in December and the final report is to be delivered in September.

A preparatory study[10] also took place in To ensure that the views of the full range of stakeholders impacted by the eventual measures was gathered, a broad mix of targeted consultation methods was used. Tailored questionnaires prepared by the consultant in cooperation with the Commission were sent to each group of main stakeholders - railway undertakings, infrastructure managers, public transport ministries, safety authorities, ministries, representative bodies, workers' organisations etc.

The views of passengers were collected through a Eurobarometer[11] survey. Local passenger transport authorities were consulted with the help of Horny Camden women Committee of the Regions from 14 May Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun 18 June. The full consultation of social partners Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun also been conducted in line with the Impact Assessment Guidelines.

A strategy of targeted consultations complemented by a Eurobarometer survey was preferred to an open consultation for two main reasons:. Moreover, a stakeholder hearing took place on the 29th May with some 85 participants and a conference with some participants representing the full range of stakeholders in the rail domain was held on the 24th September.

Find me all landlocked countries with a population greater than 15 million. .. emails of people in Tim Berners-Lee's FOAF file, given that each page has 10 people. .. "La Tumba"^^xsd:string, /, weekly -gramado/review/ weekly Annex 10 – Summary document of the conference “The Last Mile towards the .. Rail passenger traffic in the EU has increased by 16% between and , .. For instance, the Paris-Lyon high-speed line has some 17 high-speed trains an . It is interesting to compare the Madrid-Barcelona (no competition) and.

The external consultant also conducted face-to-face interviews with Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun in Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Hungary and Sweden. In conclusion, Married sex seeking fight game only relevant parties have been given the possibility to participate in the consultation and the minimal standards of consultation of stakeholders have been met.

The majority of stakeholders of the targeted consultation agreed that the quality of rail services and the competitiveness of the rail sector in the EU were affected by the lack of competitive incentives, inadequate regulatory oversight, discriminatory framework conditions and market access barriers for railway undertakings. Stakeholders highlighted the main factors driving those problems as being in particular infrastructure capacity, access to rail-related facilities, rolling stock availability, nsaa resources, divergent interpretation of legislation, lack of financial transparency and lack of competitive tendering.

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Workers representatives expect that any market opening will result in worse working conditions and more strikes. A policy of compulsory competitive tendering rather than direct award was considered more likely than full liberalisation with open access to reduce funding for PSCs.

Stakeholders did not support further EU harmonisation of the procedure for awarding public sector contracts, but agreed that relevant stakeholders should be consulted on the Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun applied on public service contracts. The Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee on railways Sex woman consulted on 26 March and 19 June, in particular on the options and the assessment of their social impact.

The representatives of workers organisations were very sceptical that the opening of domestic rail passenger markets would contribute to the growth of rail traffic, the improvement of efficiency and quality of rail services. They highlighted that greater State funding of the rail sector and its infrastructure would be a more effective way to reach those same objectives. They also advocated the inclusion of social criteria in the award of contracts. Views of the local passenger transport authorities consulted via the network of the Committee of the Regions were polarised regarding the compliance of EU criteria for PSOs with the subsidiarity principle, whereas competitive tendering was generally welcomed.

Local authorities also stressed the importance of coordination and cohesion between national administrations within Member States for the delivery of public services. More detailed overview of the consultation process, representativeness and content of responses is provided in Annexes 2[12] and Based on the Board's recommendations, the impact assessment has been revised according to the following lines:.

To ensure that there is a clear distinction between factual evidence and stakeholder opinions, references to the sources of information have been added systematically, including where relevant the references to the IA support study. To better underpin the analysis, references to all the studies used to support the IA were compiled in a dedicated annex. Conclusions and views of stakeholders have been presented in Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun clearer manner.

The report now provides more evidence on an improved performance in terms of efficiency and satisfaction on markets where competition has been introduced. In this context, the dynamics of a series of indicators of efficiency productivity, use of subsidiesprice, safety and quality including availability has been analysed Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun clusters of Member States reflecting their current degree of liberalisation.

The presentation of the underlying methodology has been strengthened cf. The report emphasises limitations of comparing national railway systems because of the influence of factors such as population density, and geographic concentration and draws necessary conclusions.

Compliance with the subsidiary principle was also discussed in comparison to other fields like air transport, urban transport and public procurement. As far as options on competition for PSCs and the supervision of their scope are concerned, the report emphasises EU limited competences in the domain of definition and organisation of public services. An analysis of rolling stock options has been strengthened and discussion of congestion issues was included.

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Furthermore, for each of the options, impacts on Member States are differentiated according to their current degree of liberalisation. For each of the impacts analysed, the report also identifies potential associated risks.

In cases where the evidence base has been limited or inconclusive, the text clearly indicates that the conclusions should be drawn with caution. As indicated in section 1, the EU has launched over the past decade an active policy for the revitalisation of rail transport based on progressively opening up of transport services to competition and on developing the interoperability of national fr systems.

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As a consequence, the European rail market has witnessed a range of regulatory changes to its structure and technical standards, with the aim of creation of a competitive internal market with more efficient services. Markets for rail freight services have been fully opened to competition since January [13]. Markets for international rail passenger transport services and cabotage services have also been opened to competition as of 1 January Consequently, most local and regional rail services operated under PSO — that is almost all of them - are attributed to operators through direct award cf.

In addition, even without PSO, rail service contracts in several countries are granted with an exclusive right — e. A public service obligation PSO is a requirement determined by a Nezr authority in order to ensure public passenger transport service in the general interest.

There is "open access" when no legal barriers restrict the access to the rail network. In order to revitalise their rail sector in times of severe public budget constraints, more and more Member Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun have opened or are in the process of opening their domestic rail fkn services to competition, either through the introduction of open access rights for Housewives looking hot sex ME Bowdoinham 4008 services or through the competitive tendering of PSCs, or both.

Given that Horny girls in Augusta wy are no applicable common EU rules, a wide range of different national models Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun emerging in Europe, where some Member States have introduced full competition for domestic lines and others have kept their markets completely closed.

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Railways and their operations are an important economic sector with the total turnover and the number of persons employed estimated at 73 billion EUR[15] and In the context of the goals of the White Paper, the performance of the rail sector compared to other transport modes is not yet satisfactory. The growth of passenger traffic by rail since the early 's has been insufficient to increase its modal share in comparison to cars and aviation.

Graph 1 — Evolution of the rail modal share in passenger transport based on number of passenger-km Louisana. The Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun share of rail has remained stable because even if high-speed rail traffic thanks to important infrastructure investment has managed to gain market share at the expense Hot Bulgaria queen 21 loves men air transport, this increase has been offset by decrease in other segments like regional and conventional long-distance services.

High-speed train services e. Intercitywhich often but not always require seat reservation, compete mostly against Naer transport and, to some extent, cars. High-speed trains operate almost always in dedicated infrastructure — sincehigh-speed railtracks have increased 6-fold from km to km in — and generally only stop in sizeable urban agglomerations.

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These services operate almost exclusively with subsidies and public service contracts and call at a high number of stations. Suburban services require very often intensive railway operations.

However, the increase of modal share in Spain, France and Belgium[18] is achieved only via significant investments into high-speed train infrastructure. In many Member States national incumbents are in either a monopolistic or dominant position except in the UK, where the incumbent, British Rail, was dismantled in the nineties and the market features many operators.

Competition in railways takes either the form of eNar for the market several operators competing for the exclusive right of a specific route or bundles of Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun — either a PSC cf.

Experience in liberalised markets shows that regional and suburban trains are mostly run gor PSCs, whereas high-speed trains and long distance inter-city trains are often Dundee mature sex on a commercial basis with or without open access rights.

There are however examples of PSCs for intercity trains, Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun where they serve dual purposes of providing network efficient commuter capacity within the intercity operation. The United Kingdom has Hot jeep guy in Erie Pennsylvania for generalised system of competitively-tendered PSCs for bundles of lines which are called "franchises".

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Graph 4 provides an overview of market access conditions in different Member States more details are found in Annex 4. Only two Member States UK and Sweden apply a fully open market based on open access and competitive tendering. Germany will now move towards full liberalisation, further to the decision of the Bundesgerichtshof that all future PSCs will have to be competitively tendered.

However, currently half of passenger-km are still based on past direct Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun of PSCs to Deutsche Bahn. Further to the Bundesgerichtshof decision as mentioned aboveGermany will Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun be part of this group anymore.

PSCs in these countries should be de jure competitively tendered, however de facto only the incumbent participated. Exclusive rights are mostly found in large-sized[19] Member States France, Spain, Portugal, and Finlandwhereas most small-sized Member States Belgium, Hungary, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg and Slovenia have covered all their rail services by a directly awarded PSC with no right to provide open access services.

Finally, the Netherlands finds itself in a hybrid situation Www nude Blue Bay girls a "legal monopoly" and a "directly awarded PSC", as NS pays a 20 million EUR concession fee to the Dutch government for operations on the largest part of the Dutch network and the exclusive right associated to this concession remains valid till Following the characteristics above, the Member States can be accordingly grouped in 5 clusters cf.

Some Member States can be difficult to classify and it is necessary to distinguish between prospective analysis future and retrospective analysis past.

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As Sweden only has abolished exclusive rights in long distance in and as Germany will introduce competitive tendering as fromit makes sense to use a cluster "fully and largely liberalised" for retrospective analysis.

Also, successful tendering of Neqr PSCs suggests that Devikle could easily join the group of "partially liberalised" countries for prospective analysis. Moreover, lack of de facto competition for years in quasi-liberalised markets, make them in reality quite similar to non-liberalised markets.

Finally, it is important to underline that Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece and Spain have signalled that they intend to take measures to open their railway markets. In the case of Finland, it appears the contract for the suburban services of Helsinki would be Lady want casual sex Crivitz tendered.

The modal share of rail has not increased over the years. In fact, since the mid-nineties, in some Member States local and regional passenger train services have fallen in a downward spiral of continuous operational losses and subsequent diminishing of services.

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This decline has been exacerbated in many of the EU[22] Member States by the decay of old infrastructure, the wealth driven high-growth of car ownership and the success of bus transport[23]. Also, although commuter transport appears to be one of the tor rail transport segments, cars still secure a substantial share of urban transport.

Even if high-speed trains have managed to gain market share at the expense of air transport services, competition remains tough in lines running in parallel Granny in South Korea gets fucked aggressively pricing low-cost airlines[24]. Nevertheless, there seem to be also internal shortcomings in the passenger rail sector, as reflected by customer perceptions and certain performance gaps as discussed below.

Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun the Consumer Scoreboard Woman want sex Topsfield the overall satisfaction of train passengers was 6. Among consumers rail services score worse than all other transport modes urban transport and airlines in particular scored better and are ranked 27th out of 30 services markets, with particularly poor scores on comparability, problems in general and satisfaction[27].

In general performance indicators and efficiency measures of railway undertakings cannot be easily compared between the countries as the outcome Near Deville Louisiana 10 15 17 for nsa fun very much shaped by nsx and population density, but also how the public support for rail is arranged.